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Each of these links may be helpful in some way for anyone working on web development. Each one is annotated at least briefly to indicate why you might like to go there.

General Links for the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the
Web Hypertext Applications Technology Working Group (WHATWG)

  1. W3C Home Page The place to go for the very latest information on most web technologies and their standards.
  2. W3C All Standards and Drafts Links to all the standards and drafts the W3C has completed or is working on.
  3. WHATWG Home Page The home page of the alternate (first competing but now cooperating) group developing web standards, particularly HTML5.


  1. W3C HTML5: A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML A specification defining the latest major revision of the core language of the World Wide Web. This specification is yet to be fully implemented, but it will eventually supersede HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.0, now that work on XHTML 2.0 has been terminated.
  2. W3C HTML5: Edition for Web Authors A W3C HTML5 Working Draft and a subset of the full specification aimed more at web authors.
  3. HTML: The Markup Language (an HTML language reference) A "non-normative" reference describing the HTML markup language and providing details to help producers of HTML content create documents that conform to the language. [From Wikipedia: In standards terminology still used by some organizations, "normative" means "considered to be a prescriptive part of the standard". It characterizes that part of the standard which describes what ought to be done within the application of that standard. For example, many standards have an introduction, preface, or summary that is considered non-normative, as well as a main body that is considered normative. "Compliance" is defined as "complies with the normative sections of the standard"; an object that complies with the normative sections but not the non-normative sections of a standard is still considered to be in compliance.]
  4. WHATWG's "Living Standard for HTML5" WHATWG's (ongoing) version of the HTML5 standard, considered as a constantly growing and evolving entity. This is the full version, containing the information that both browser vendors and web developers need to know.
  5. WHATWG's HTML5 Optimized for Web Developers An alternate form of WHATWG's site containing less technical information of use to implementers and geared more toward web authors. In other words, the information that only browser vendors need to know has been removed from the full specification.
  6. Promotional Site for HTML 5 An unabashedly promotional site for HTML5 where you can do everything from follow up on some of its technologies to buy a T-shirt.
  7. HTML5 vs. HTML 4 A web site that deals with the differences between HTML5 and HTML 4.
  8. HTML5 Content Models The new "content models" that extend the basic block and inline models of the past.
  9. W3C HTML 4.01 Home Page The W3C home page for HTML 4.01, the last version of HTML before XHTML.
  10. W3C XHTML 1.0 Home Page The W3C home page for XHTML 1.0, now the "last" version of XHTML.
  11. W3C XHTML 2 Home Page The W3C home page for XHTML, which is now "closed" (that is, no further development is planned).
  12. Startup Templates A selection of startup templates for different types of web pages.
  13. DOCTYPE Activation Activating browser modes with DOCTYPE.
  14. Absolute vs. Relative Links A brief primer on absolute and relative (document-relative and root-relative) links.
  15. Valid DOCTYPEs A list of valid doctypes.
  16. Deprecated Tags Information on deprecated tags.
  17. A Detailed HTML Overview A page with many links to additional resources.


  1. W3C CSS Home Page The W3C home page for CSS, where you can find both reference and tutorial material.
  2. W3C Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Snapshot A reasonably up-to-date "snapshot" of the status of CSS.
  3. W3C CSS Current Work A site where you can find out what work is currently in progress in CSS, and even participate in the process if you wish.
  4. Style Identification Give it some CSS and it will tell you which page elements on a web page are affected by the given style rules.
  6. Quirks Mode vs. Strict Mode Gives a short overview of the reasons for and the differences between quirks mode and strict mode in the interpretation of CSS.
  7. W3C Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 1 (CSS 2.1) Specification The title says it all.
  8. Eric Meyer's CSS Reset File One possible CSS reset file for using "as is" for your CSS Reset, or as a basis for creating your own version of a CSS Reset.
  9. normalize.css A link to the normalize.css file, which can be used as a CSS Reset file. This one is used by Twitter Bootstrap, HTML5 Boilerplate, and many others.
  10. 960 Grid System "The 960 Grid System is an effort to streamline web development workflow by providing commonly used dimensions, based on a width of 960 pixels. There are two variants: 12 and 16 columns, which can be used separately or in tandem."
  11. blueprint "Blueprint is a CSS framework, which aims to cut down on your development time. It gives you a solid foundation to build your project on top of, with an easy-to-use grid, sensible typography, useful plugins, and even a stylesheet for printing."
  12. CLEANCSS A CSS formatter and optimizer.
  13. CSS Code Optimizer and Code Formatter Another tool for optimization and formatting.
  14. CSS Zen Garden A site that illustrates nicely what can be done with CSS.
  15. CSS Tricks A site with lots of special-case CSS techniques.
  16. CSS Minifier A site which helps you condense your (finalized) CSS to conserve storage space and bandwidth.


  1. W3C HTML and XHTML Markup Validator Service One place to go when you want or need to have one of your web pages "validated" according to one of the accepted W3C standards for HTML or XHTML markup, including HTML5.
  2. W3C CSS Validator Service The place to go for validation of your Cascading Style Sheets, but currently only validates up to CSS version 2.1.
  3. A CSS Validator for CSS 3 But, since CSS 3 is a developing standard, a question will always be: How much and which parts of CSS 3 are being validated?
  4. WDG XHTML and HTML Markup Validator Service Another place to go when you want a web page validated (if your usual validator is not available, let's say).
  5. XML Resources & Validators A XML resource site, with links to validators as well.
  6. Another XML Validator Service An XML Validator Service provided by
  7. HTML 5 Validator Service Another validator service especially for HTML5.

JavaScript | ECMAScript

  1. European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) Among other things, here is where you will find the ECMA standards, which include those for ECMAScript, better known as JavaScript.
  2. JavaScript Reference Card (pdf) A quick reference card for JavaScript.
  3. DOM-on-a-Page The DOM in one page, though a very big one.
  4. jQuery A very popular JavaScript library for achieving many web page effects in a cross-browser fashion.
  5. Modernizr "Modernizr is an open-source JavaScript library that helps you build the next generation of HTML5 and CSS3-powered websites." [That's a quote from the Modernizr folks.]
  6. Node.js Node.js is a "platform" that allows JavaScript to be used on the server side to build fast, scalable web applications.
  7. JSHint JSHint is a program that flags suspicious usage in programs written in JavaScript.


  1. PHP Home Page This site contains both a comprehensive PHP reference and a tutorial on PHP.
  2. PHP Reference Card (pdf) A quick reference card for PHP.


  1. MySQL Home Page This site has a somewhat commercial "look and feel", which may be an unfair or flattering observation, depending on your point of view, but you can get lots of information (a complete reference manual, for example) and free downloads here.
  2. MySQL Reference Card (pdf) A quick reference card for MySQL.
  3. A Database Normalization Tutorial A tutorial on the first three database normal forms
  4. A MySQL Tutorial


  1. phpMyAdmin Home Page The official home page of the phpMyAdmin project, which provides a GUI front end for administering a MySQL database over the web.
  2. phpMyAdmin Tutorial Although this tutorial is superficially tied to a specific system, it appears to be a decent introductory tutorial of a mostly generic nature.

General Web References | Help | Tutorials

  1. W3 Schools Home Page A large collection of excellent tutorials and reference pages on many web technologies. In many cases the tutorials permit you to edit the code you are looking at and experiment with "what if" scenarios.
  2. Various articles, tutorials, and guides on web development from fundamental to advanced.
  3. tutorialspoint Another large collection of web development and additional more general programming and other tutorials and resources.
  4. "The latest information on how to use the technology that runs the web -- HTML, CSS, JavaScript and more."
  5. MDN (the Mozilla Developer Network) A great resource for both web develpers and web-developers-to-be.
  6. A good place to find short, readable articles on many web topics.
  7. Little Web Hut An excellent resource both for tutorials and reference material.
  8. Some pretty good tutorials can be found here.
  9. A short but useful site discussing some aspects of CSS layout.
  10. Microsoft's "Channel 9" Look for the web tutorial videos, especially any offered by Bob Tabor.
  11. sitepoint Lots of How To articles and other resources.
  12. A List Apart "For People Who Make Web Sites" is their tag line. A place where you may find more than one useful article or the answer to an obscure question.
  13. "We scour the web so you don't have to!"
  14. maxdesign Lots of helpful articles and some very nice slide shows.
  15. HTML5 Doctor "Helping you implement HTML5 today"
  16. A CSS Float Tutorial A good tutorial on the use of CSS floats in page design.
  17. Web Design Group A reference site and tool source for web authors.
  18. Website Tips A tutorial and reference site for (X)HTML and CSS.
  19. A tutorial and reference site for several different web technologies.
  20. HTMLSource Another tutorial and reference site, especially for HTML.
  21. O'Reilly's XML Site Another O'Reilly site that contains, if not all, then a lot of what you might want to know about XML.
  22. Eric Meyer's Website This is the website of Eric Meyer, a well-know authority on various web-related things.
  23. Activating Browser Modes with DOCTYPE In order to deal both with content written according to Web standards and with content written according to legacy practices that were prevalent in the late 1990s, contemporary web browsers implement various "engine modes". This document explains what those modes are and how they are triggered.
  24. TJKDesign A source of potentially useful articles on many different web-related topics.
  25. CSSMOJO You are now directed here from the TJKDesign site noted in the previous link, though that site still contains some material as well.
  26. Dave Woods A free-lance web designer whose site contains a number of useful articles.
  27. Van SEO Design Another web designer whose site contains a number of useful articles.
  28. Mozilla Developer Network Lots of information on web development.
  29. code style Answers key questions for Web developers. Which Web fonts are most common? How to create robust Web design and accessible Websites with open standards technology.
  30. Google Webmaster Guidelines Google guidelines for, among other things, search-friendly websites.
  31. Digital Web magazine Search Engine Optimization and your website.
  32. HTML Dog Tutorials on HTML and CSS.
  33. A repository of many useful "cheat sheets".
  34. VisiBone Many reference sheets for sale, individually or in various packages.
  35. Computer Hope Particularly good if you want some information on a computer term or acronym.
  36. Mozilla Developer Network An open community of developers who provide, via this site, a great deal of useful information on a wide variety of web topics.
  37. How Browsers Work Information on what goes on behind the scenes as your browser does your bidding.
  38. A commercial site where you can try some things for free, but for which you need to sign up to take full advantage of what they have to offer. And they have a lot to offer, not only in the area of web development, but in may other fields as well.

Colors and Images

  1. Free "Dummy" Image Generator A very useful site for generating images of whatever size you'd like in whatever background and text colors you'd like. Excellent for when you just want an image of a particular size as you experiment with page layout.
  2. A Color Scheme Designer Tool Helps you choose colors that should work well together on your website.
  3. A Color Picker Helps you get the right hex code for a given color.
  4. Another Color Picker Helps you get the right hex code for a given color.
  5. Yet Another Color Picker Helps you get the right hex code for a given color.
  6. Web Photo Resizer An online tool to help you resize your images, if that's something you need to do.
  7. picresize Another image resizer.
  8. Resize Your Image And yet another image resizer.
  9. iResize Claims to be the simplest on-line image resizer.
  10. Shrink Pictures An image shrinker.
  11. resizr Lets you resize your images and also crop them.
  12. lunapic Online photo editor.

A Selection of Web Development Tools and Utilities

  1. Web Browser Acid Tests A site for putting your browser through its paces.
  2. HTML5 Outliner A tool that you can use to "outline" an HTML5 document to get a clear understanding of its structure.
  3. This site provides a collection of schemas, i.e., HTML tags, that webmasters can use to markup their pages in ways recognized by major search providers.
  4. HTML TIDY A good place to start if you want information on the HTML TIDY utility for "cleaning up" your web pages. You might also want to investigate "Slidey", a utility for creating PowerPoint-like presentations (horrors) that work through your web browser.
  5. CSS TIDY Analogous to HTML TIDY, but for CSS.
  6. HTML-Kit Editor Home Page This is the home page of a freely available HTML editor (at least "Build 292" is freely available) that appears to be an excellent choice for Windows web developers.
  7. Bluefish Editor Home Page This is the home page of a freely available HTML editor that appears to be an excellent choice for Linux web developers.
  8. FavIcon from Pics A free web service from, the folks behind HTML-Kit, which allows you to produce a "favicon" from an image file.
  9. Modernizr "Modernizr is an open-source JavaScript library that helps you build the next generation of HTML5 and CSS3-powered websites."
  10. Test JavaScript/PHP A site where you can write and test either JavaScript or PHP code.
  11. regexpal A site where you can write and test regular expressions.
  12. Handbrake A free, multiplatorm, multithreaded audio and video encoding tool, which will convert most multimedia video file formats to MP4 or Ogg Theora, and most audio file formats from one format to another.
  13. ZAMZAR A site that provides online transcoding services (and even supports the relatively new WebM format).
  14. Online audio converter for uploading and converting.
  15. weblight Helps you efficiently generate sitemaps, and check links, markup and CSS, or so they claim.
  16. GIMP The GNU Image Manipulation Program site. GIMP is powerful and flexible but has a reasonably steep learning curve.
  17. Paint.NET The Paint.NET site, for another image manipulation program, a perhaps simpler alternative to GIMP.
  18. Google's PageSpeed Insights Site Get some "insight" into the behavior of your web pages.

Linux | Apache | Tomcat

  1. Alphabetical Listing of Linux Commands This page gives an alphabetical listing of 515 Linux commands, with command options and usage examples.
  2. Short List of Commands for the bash Shell This page gives an useful, though incomplete, listing of Linux commands (specifically, bash shell commands), though without options and without examples.
  3. Apache Home Page This is the home page of the most widely used web server on the internet. It's very good, and it's very inexpensive (as in free!).
  4. Tomcat Home Page This is the home page of the Tomcat "servlet container" that is used in the official Reference Implementation for the "Java Servlet" and "JavaServer Pages" technologies.

Browser Extensions

  1. Safari Validator An in-browser validator for Safari.
  2. Firefox Validator An in-browser validator for Firefox.
  3. Web Developer for Firefox The Web Developer add-on for Firefox, something every web developer should have.

General Web Data | Web Stats

  1. Web Browser Comparisons on Wikipedia This page compares various browsers on various platforms from several different points of view, including web technology and protocol support.
  2. W3Counter Keeps track of global web stats.
  3. Netcraft News A site where you can find up-to-date news and stats on various aspects of web usage (the "battle" between Apache and IIS, for example).
  4. Usage Data Who's using what on the web?
  5. Future of the Web HTML5, XHTML 2 and the future of the web.


  1. Safari Books Online Start a free subscription to many of the (excellent) publications offered by O'Reilly Media.
  2. A Book Apart Brief books for people who make websites.
  3. TinyURL Allows you to convert a long URL into a short one.
  4. Free Logo Designs A good place to start if you're looking for a logo.
  5. Free Formatter A site that offers facilities for formatting various kinds of documents, plus other useful references.


  1. Bootstrap A popular framework for establishing a website.
  2. Backbone Another framework for helping you to set up a website.
  3. HTML5 Boilerplate Still another "front-end template" (framework) for helping you to set up a website.
  4. Pure (CSS) A set of small, responsive CSS modules that you can use in every web project.
  5. 960 Grid System "The 960 Grid System is an effort to streamline web development workflow by providing commonly used dimensions, based on a width of 960 pixels." is quote from the site.

Perl | CGI

  1. Perl Home Page The home page of the Perl programming language.
  2. CPAN The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network, the gateway to all things Perl. The canonical location for Perl code and modules.
  3. The CGI Resource Index for Perl This link takes you to a collection of Perl scripts for CGI programming, as well as a number of other resources.

Oracle's Virtual Box

  1. (no longer applies) Instructions for Installing Oracle's Virtual Box and the Virtual Image of Our Nature's Source Sample Web Site Tells you how to download the Virtual Box software that you can then use as a "virtual machine" on which you can also install a virtual image of our Nature's Source sample website.

Local Items of Interest

  1. (no longer applies) NX Client Setup Instructions for Accessing the cs Machine A pdf file containing instructions for setting up NX on your home PC for remote access to the cs machine.